Birmingham is generally known as an industrial icon (it can be successfully argued that the industrial revolution began here) and yet has more parks than any other European city. It is also the birthplace to Cadbury Chocolates and The Lord of the Rings author J.R.R. Tolkien. It is clear that the city's history is rich and diverse.

Birmingham is listed in the Domesday Book, and valued at 20 shillings. The city was founded as a site for weekly local market days. Roads developed to facilitate trade, coal and iron were discovered nearby, and a system of canals made the area very attractive to both manufacturers and innovators, including James Watt (of steam engine fame).

Some of the city's notable landmarks include:

Places 

Aston Hall

A Jacobean mansion, built in 1618 - 1635, Aston Hall displays original plasterwork, woodwork and chimney pieces. Then 43-acre park has been partially restored to reflect its 17th century origins.

Archaeological Sites

The City's Web site has an archaeology page about the city's buried past. Birmingham's Roman fort (about 48 AD) and excavations at The Bullring (about 12th century AD) are two especially fine sites. Other important sites:

  • Wishaw, near the Belfry Golf Course, is the site of a medieval fish farm.
  • An Iron Age settlement (dating to 1st century BC - 2nd century AD) and a burnt mound from the Bronze Age were unearthed at Langley Mill in Sutton Coldfield.
  • A burial site and a bathhouse were found at Wall in Litchfield.  

Digbeth

 This is where Birmingham began in 7th Century AD. It was first a marketplace, and then attracted more settlers, farmers and tradesmen - in oart because of the available water. For hundreds of years, it was a center of growth and industry. Check the Web site for two walking trails, which take you past several sies, including the all-important canals, Gun Barrel Proof House (1813), the Curzon Street Railway Terminus (1838), the Deritend Branch Library (1866), and the original Bird's Custard Factory (1902) - now an arts center.

Sarehole Mill

 Built in 1765, Sarehole Mill is one of only two water mills (from over fifty) that helped power the factories of Industrial Revolution-era Birmingham. Mistakenly many people believe it is mentioned in J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings but the connection is that Tolkien (who lived locally) was frightened by the miller and used him as the basis for a character in the work. . The museum is open only during the months of April - October, but even in off months, the site is worth a visit to fans and history buffs. Worth seeing, too, is Moseley Bog, which the young Tolkien played in and became the inspiration for Middle Earth.

Museums 

The Lapworth Museum of Geology (some way outside the city)

The specimens in this museum, founded in 1880, come from all parts of the world, but most come from the Midlands.

Coughton Court (about 15 miles from Birmingham on the A34)

This home/museum is notable for its Tudor-style architecture, its lavish gardens and collections of period furniture and porcelain. It also houses an exhibit on the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. The short version of the story:

  • Henry VIII separated from the Catholic Church when he wanted to divorce his wife, Katherine of Aragon (The English Reformation)
  • After his death, religious (and of course also political) instability pitted Protestants against Catholics.
  • In 1580s, James VI of Scotland courted the Catholics for support and then, when on the throne, rallied Protestant support with stronger laws and penalties for Catholics.
  • There followed several plots to oust the government, in hopes that the next government would be better (read "more disposed towards the Catholics"), the most famous (and perhaps the most likely to succeed) was the Gunpowder Plot of 1605.
  • Guy Fawkes Day is celebrated with bonfires on November 5, to commemorate the failure of Fawkes to ignite the barrels of gunpowder in the basement of the House of Lords, an act that could have effectively crippled the government.

Museum of the Jewellery Quarter

Birmingham has a 200+ year history of fine jewelry making. During that history, the areas workshops produced jewelry, buttons, buckles, and coins. The museum is set in an old factory and the guided tour demonstrates many of the techniques used. The area is still full of manufacturing jeweller and bargains can be found!

The Pen Room

Birmingham was THE center of pan manufacturing during the 19th century. Located in the Jewellery Quaerter, this free-admission museum provides history lessons, and the opportunity to try you hand at writing utensils of the past. 

The Birmingham Mint 

Founded in 1786, this mint was the first to use steam power to mass produce coins. Innovators James Watt and Matthew Boulton helped the Royal Mint meet the demand for coins in 18th Century England.

The Sweet Side

Cadbury World

Whther you favorite is Flake, Dairy Milk, Turkish Delight or another, it's hard to deny that Cadbury's is a classic confectionery. Visit this theme park/museum to learn more about chocolate in general and Cadbury's in specific. There are some kiddie rides and free samples. You see little of the production facility. For the budget-conscious chocolate fans: consider buying some of the "mishapes" - still taste as great as the perfectly shaped candies.