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According to archaeological evidence, civilizations have existed on Formentera for over 3000 years. We even have present-day existing evidence of a grave dating back to the year 1600 BC and cave drawings dating back to 800 BC. In short, people have inhabited this land for quite some time.
The first society to rule the island were the Carthagenians who were merchants and tradespeople using the land wisely as ports. But they were overcome in 123 B.C. when they overturned to Roman rule. Up until this time, the society's remained rather primitive and it was the Romans who were responsible for the building of roads and the first civil buildings.
The ninth century saw brought in Arabs, more so to neighboring Ibiza, but nevertheless they remained in the area for around 500 years. In 1235 Christianity arrived to the island by crusaders and King Jaume I of Aragon's ruling. A little more than a hundred years after this, the Romans also tried to bring more of a population back to Formentera as it wasn't at all growing.
It was not until Spain underwent a civil war, the "war of successions" that Formentera was claimed for Spain. It is believed that when Felipe V took the Spanish throne, that the Majaorcans gave him their approval and Formentera was a part of the Majorcan kingdom, so it all fell into place together with the other Balearic Islands as Majorca was officially in 1719, declared a province of Belaeres, thus an extension of the Spanish Kingdom.