Norway is a wide and very long country with a complex topography. Travellers planning to visit more than one town need an idea about type transport inside Norway. Best advice: First learn about transport options, then adjust travel plans.

The rail network is limited and basically serves commuter traffic around Oslo (incl airport shuttle) plus a handful of main lines between Oslo and main cities (Stavanger, Bergen, Trondheim-Bodø). Stavanger, Bergen and Trondheim are not directly linked by railway. Train is a good alternative to driving: More relaxing and plenty of time to enjoy landscape, and mostly faster than car. Cheap tickets are available for travellers that are flexible about time and date. Passenger trains are operated by NSB.

Several rail stretches are sights in themselvs, notably the Bergen railway (with detour to Flåm) - real time movie Bergen to Oslo here, and the Rauma railway (a branch of the Dovre railway from Oslo to Trondheim).

Express buses connects towns not covered by railway, as well as  other towns. These buses (mostly operated by Nor-Way) are comfortable and inexpensive. 

Driving gives the most freedom for  trips outside cities, and is often the best way to experience nature and landscape. In general, a car is not the best for driving from city to city as city centres are not designed for cars, navigation can be difficult, and parking is expensive and/or limited.  All major airports have frequent and comfortable airport buses to/from the city centre. Car rental is relatively expensive and best if expenses can be shared by 2 or more people.

Learn the numbering system for roads as this is very useful for  navigation. A handful of main roads are part of the European highway network ("E" roads), indicated with a white letters on green background. E6 is the north-south corridor and Norway's main road. E18 also comes from Sweden and continues Kristiansand. E6 and E18 meet in Oslo. E39 is the north-south connection on the West coast. Other roads are indicated with black fonts on white background (most important of these are white on green as the E-roads). The lower the number, the more important the road.

While driving in winter conditions is only for the experienced, it is easier than might be assumed. Norwegian roads are covered in hard snow or ice for long periods from November to March/April. A few mountain passes can be closed during heavy snowfall or strong wind, others are permanently closed during winter months.But in general the department of roads keep all roads open even during the worst snow storms. An army of trucks and tractors is fighting the snow round the clock.

Car ferries are an integral part of the road network, and basically not a separate means of transport. Car ferries generally cross fjords at the most narrow point, on main roads ferries typically depart every 20, 30 or 40 minutes. These car ferries are generally of modest size, only on a few busy stretches there are ferries with 100 cars or more. Car ferries ("ferje") should not be confused with express passenger boats ("hurtigbåt"), these catamarans cover long stretches (often several hours) along the coast or along the fjords. Don't ask for the ferry if you want go by express boat!

Hitchhiking is not as common as it used to be, but still an option for budget travellers and also a nice way of getting in contact with locals. As there are few motorways in Norway, hitchhiking is possible on virtually all roads but drivers are more likely to stop in low speed stretches and where one can easily pull over. Travellers in groups, with heavy luggage or with wet/dirty clothes are less likely to be picked up.  The international thumb-up signal is understood by all.

Cycling is great way of exploring Norway. However, be prepared for demanding uphills, long tunnels and unstable weather. This page has a lot of useful information about cycling.

Flying inside Norway is very effective, and cheap tickets are available between major airports. Flying is the quickest alternative for tourists visiting only major cities. However, to see the great landscapes of Norway, flying need to be combined with driving or organized sightseeing tours. 

NOTE:  Oslo has only one airport at Gardermoen north of the city, but some airlines fly to Sandefjord airport at Torp or Moss airport at Rygge instead (both south of the city, on either side of the Oslo fjord). Transfer between these airports takes several hours (by bus and/or train) and typically involves a change of transport in Oslo.

Taxis are usually available at taxi stands at airports, train stations and major hotels. In each town there usually a small number of taxi companies. Taxis are usually comfortable cars like Mercedes or Volvo with powerful diesel engines. Even short rides are relatively expensive for visitors. In small towns, taxis often need to be ordered by telephone, travelleres need to be prepared to wait.

The integrated public transport network (trains, trams, metro and buses) in Oslo and metropolitan area is excellent and no car is needed inside the city, a high speed train connects Oslo airport to Oslo centre as well as suburbs Lillestrøm, Bærum and Asker. All cities have an integrated bus network. In rural areas there are infrequent local buses, some of which are also school buses.