The culture in Papua New Guinea is fascinating as it has a host of small, distinct, individual communities, some of these with only 100 people involved. The indigenous population of New Guinea is also very heterogeneous. One can count up to 800 different types of languages in all the lands. In addition, each group has their own customs and traditions. Some societies even live similar to stone-age societies, but it is not recommended for tourists to visit these societies for obvious reasons. Other cultures include the Tapa cloth culture of the Oro Province, the Yam culture of Trobriand Islands in the Milne Bay Province and the Malangan culture of the Tabar Islands in New Ireland Province. Because as these different cultures are so spread apart, some do not know that other cultures even exist. It is for this reason that many of the languages even are completely distinct to each other. However, Melanesian Pidgin serves as the lingua franca. English is spoken by educated people and in Milne Bay Province.

Majority of the population (2/3) is Christian. There are many missionaries in Papua New Guinea. Most of the Americans that live in the country are part of missionary work (about 2,500 Americans). The rest celebrate tribal religions.

To note, there are very few permanent foreign inhabitants of Papua New Guinea, since it is so isolated and has such strange social structure. Foreign residents comprise about 1% of the population.