Ukraine - a big country, and the history of its regions (West, East, South) are very different! For example, Western Ukraine (Lviv region, Lutsk, Uzhgorod, Chernovtsy) at different times belonged to different countries. for example - the region of city  Lutsk (only 90 km from the Polish border!).Lutsk is one of the oldest cities in Ukraine. In the VII-VIII centuries on the island that was surrounded by the rivers Stir and Hlushets among impassable swamps, lived East Slavic tribes.

The first mention of Lutsk appeared in Ipatevskoy Chronicle (in 1085), it already spoke of the significant development of the city,  as a strong fortress that has stood the 6-month siege of the Polish king.  However, historical sources indicate that Christianity came here earlier than in Kyiv.

Lithuanian period.

Already in the XIII century Lutsk  called «Luchesk Great».  Catholic orders, Dominicans, Jesuits, sharitkes, bryhitkes, the Carmelites - they settled here many. Therefore, the city called "Little Rome of the East".

 

Lutsk in 1340 was taken by troops of the Lithuanian Duke Gediminas. after 4 years - Lutsk got Prince Liubart, married to Princess from Volyn. While the residence was built by Duke - Lutsk castle.This is one of the few old buildings of Gothic style, which remained in Ukraine.

 

1388 begins day of Vytautas (Vytovt). He chooses Lutsk as a second (after Vylno)   headquarters. City practically becomes the capital of the Lithuanian principality.  Then Armenians come to Lutsk. They were great builders - almost all the stone buildings of Lutsk, Lviv, Kamenetz-Podolsk built just Armenians. Lutsk of that time - an international city. In peace and harmony here lived Ukrainian, Russians, Poles, Jews, Karaites. Each community had its own sanctuary (church, synagogue, church, kenasa), a system of taxes and special architecture and planning districts. By the end of XIV century Lutsk became an important commercial center, merchants would come here from many countries, and some even settled here.

1429 :  the most powerful monarchs of Europe  come to Lutsk  to discuss about the protection a Europe from the Ottoman conquerors. At this congress was attended : Polish King Jagiello, German Emperor Sizihmunt, Grand Duke Vasily II of Moscow  and Metropolitan Photius, Danish King, gross master Prussian, Perekopsky Khan and the Byzantine ambassador.

 

After the Congress -  Lutsk crowned appears on European maps and got the Magdeburg Law.

Under power of Poland

 

1569 as a result of Lublin Union the Volyn lands come under the rule of Poland, and Lutsk became the capital of the newly formed province and the residence of the magistrates. The city gradually more and more Polish.

 

 1595 city get Cossacks with Severin Nalivayko.

 

Orthodox Brotherhood occurs in the early XVII century to counteract the Polish influence and Beresteyska Union (1596). September 1, 1619 The Brotherhood was officially recognized by the King and was given the privilege to build a church and a shelter.

 

  In 1648 the city was in revolt against the oppression of the Polish gentry.

 

 

«bad times» - XVI  century

 

the end of the XVI century began a period of gradual decline. frequent fires, epidemics, floods brought devastation to the city. Gradually faded cultural and religious life of the city, in government province Russian (Ukrainian) Polish language changed, and government positions occupied by Poles.

 

1706 - city ​​was captured by Swedish troops and robbed. .

 

1795 - III partition of Poland. Lutsk with the  Western Volyn added to the Russian Empire.

XIX century

 

During the Patriotic War of 1812 in Lutsk placed second headquarters of the Russian army under the command of the famous commander Bagration.

 

Documents show the great flood in 1845. The water level exceeded the height of bridges and flooded the city. Carriers had a lot of work during the floods, people in boats floated through the streets. Artists loved to depict on old engravings, watercolors and photographs Lutsk carriers with a long rod in his hands on the boat. Boats passed by inheritance. Now in Lutsk is located approximately 30 bridges ( 4 are large).

 

photo appears in Ukraine in the 50-60th years of the XIX century. Done in a unique picture - first photo Castle Lubart (Kozlovsky photographer). photoshops first opened in Lutsk in the 70's and 80's. The first postcards were published in October 1869 in Austria-Hungary and has since started to gain crazy popularity. Their main purpose - to post, but there was printing postcards for tourists and for sale as advertising the hotel, shop, hairdressers and more. Lutsk printing of the time: Lieberman, Schneider, Becker, Bonka. At the then Lutsk postcard written mostly Polish and German, sometimes in Russian, very rarely - in French.

 

First Lutsk railway station was established in 1891 in a fast and fun way (the King wanted to come at the train to Lutsk and gauge was not).

 

Early XX century

 

  in 1904 was held first in Lutsk telephone from the police station, fire brigade and the flat head county police. This network immediately joined the district council, hospital, banks, hotels, lawyers, military.

 

In 1909 appeared the first electric lighting in the city.

 

 During I World War Volyn became the center of fierce fighting. The city was occupied by Austrians. Summer of 1915 occurred in the vicinity of Lutsk known Brusilovsky breakthrough that went down in history of First World War.

 

After the October Revolution of 1917, the city goes back to Poland. December 20, 1918 to Lutsk detachments of Petliura. May 16, 1919 Lutsk was occupied by Polish army. 1921 - under Riga contract  Lutsk goes into Poland. In March 1921, Lutsk became the capital of the new Volyn province.

 

In autumn 1939 the history made a new turn and the city became part of the USSR, became the center of the Volyn region. Throughout its long history before 1939 Lutsk only one year - from 1918 to 1919 - belonged to Ukraine.

 

Second World War against fascism

 

September 1, 1939, Nazi Germany attacked Poland. The Polish government has instructed to release all prisoners throughout - both criminal and political, even those who had a punishment of life imprisonment. Therefore, the Polish government pardoned all prisoners without exception, are located in Lutsk prison.

 

June 25, 1941 the Second World War came to Lutsk - city was occupied by German troops. This was preceded by a terrible event: 23 June NKVD (National Committee Internal Affairs of USSR) soldiers in the courtyard of Lutsk prison was executed about 3 thousand prisoners. The war brought to Volyn region incredible suffering and destruction. The Nazis killed 165,300 residents , over 20 thousand people were taken to Germany for slave labor. Burned and destroyed 107 villages. Looted and exported valuable raw materials, property companies, farms. It appeared an active resistance movement. By the spring of 1942 in the region have formed seven local partisan units, but  during the war there were more than 50 units .

. During the war in the city was founded three Jewish ghetto, which were about 17 thousand Jews. In 1942 they were destroyed. Their homes destroyed, looted the synagogue. With several dozen synagogues that were before the war, left a bit. In 1944-1945 years in the USSR army was mobilized and thrown in front of 107,000 people. Thousands of them were killed or missing.

 

During the Second World War most towns of Volyn was destroyed. In addition, the urban population decreased as a result of hostilities. Most people of German, Dutch, Czech, Polish nationalities moved from Ukraine.