The weather of Boone is very much affected by its altitude. Nestled deep in the Appalachian Mountains, Boone stands more than half a mile high at about 3300 ft (1000m) above sea level; this is the highest elevation of any town with a population of more than 10,000 east of the Mississippi River. Though North Carolina tends to have a humid climate, Boone is considerably drier and cooler in the summer than many other parts of the state. Its climate is more like that of New England than that of the South, with up to three feet of snow in the winter and average summer temperatures of 70°F (21°C), a full 15-20°F (8-11°C) cooler than coastal Carolina. Many Boone residents do not need an air conditioner, as temperatures top out around 80°F (26°C). Most, however, do need heaters, as blizzards are not uncommon and winter days are frequently below freezing.

The different seasons hold different attractions, so the optimal time to visit depends on your choice of activities. The spring is excellent for hiking, as flowers and trees are just coming into bloom. Starting around May, rivers begin to melt, making for exciting rafting, kayaking and canoeing adventures. Fishing in one of the calmer streams is also a popular activity. There are few mosquitoes and other summer pests here, which is a bonus for outdoor sports. The fall brings some wonderful foliage in late October, which is also harvest time, which means the town bursts out in a celebration of food. As winter sets in, ski resorts open. Slopes are generally open from Thanksgiving to March, making for a long season of winter fun.