This celebrated historic hotel located directly on the rim of the Grand Canyon first opened its doors in 1905. The hotel was designed by Charles Whittlesey, Chief Architect for the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway. The Chicago architect envisioned the hotel as a cross between a Swiss chalet and a Norwegian Villa. This was done in an effort to appeal to the tastes of the elite from that era, who at the time considered European culture the epitome of refinement. El Tovar was one of a chain of hotels and restaurants owned and operated by the Fred Harvey Company in conjunction with the Santa Fe Railway. The hotel was built from local limestone and Oregon pine. It cost $250,000 to build, and many considered it the most elegant hotel west of the Mississippi River. In 1987 the Hotel was designated a National Historic Landmark. In the past, the hotel has hosted such luminaries as Theodore Roosevelt, Albert Einstein, Bill Clinton, Paul McCartney, and Oprah Winfrey.