Within easy day trip distance from Dresden:
Better stop for two nights not one so you have time to see a bit of Dresden, too.
We just loved Meissen's old town, the walk up to the castle, the history of porcelain and the exhibits, the castle itself (photos allowed), cathedral, enjoying a beer overlooking the rooftops, wonderful atmosphere, architecture, history. A great day trip.
Moritzburg palace was a hunting lodge (no photos allowed). Quite small. Massive displays of antlers. It sits on a little 'island', quite picturesque.
The fortress is substantial, and set high above the Elbe river (I think), very pretty location.
If you had to choose, my preference would be a full day in Dresden and a full day in Meissen.
If you only have one night in Dresden (which is a shame) you better concentrate on those VERY close to the city centre. If you're looking for a chateau/palace with gardens, pick Pillnitz. If you're looking for something more medieval looking, you need to go to Weesenstein or Meißen.
Getting to fortress Königstein by public transportation is a bit inconvenient and time consuming. You'll see it from the train coming from Prague - shortly behind Bad Schandau, when the river makes a bend left you'll see it from the right side of the train, high above the valley.
Know what you mean, it's all very well to do your research but then you find a million other things to do and see..... :)
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