Have you looked at photos of each of them? Positano is more vertical, has no road down by the beach/sea, Amalfi is considered the transportation hub of the two villages with both boats, taxis, buses down by the harbor, Positano has only a dock, a few beaches (large, small), you can only reach the beach via walking or boat whereas in Amalfi you can reach it via all transportation methods.
Some photos of each (not my blog but good photos of each):
You can click on the photos in each section to enlarge then click through to see all the photos; read up on each village: www.amalficoastweb.com and www.positano.com - and, of course, your guidebook which will have plenty of information on the area and the villages (this is the best resource to begin with) -
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