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L'Anse aux Meadow National Historic Site, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is truly "the end of the world" for most American travellers. Miles of landscape, rocks and mountains, flanked by seas are absolutely magnificent. It is easy to imagine the Norse arriving here from Greenland 1000 years ago. Be sure to take the guided walking tour as the archeological digs were covered back up to preserve them and the story is quite fascinating. The tour is gratis with park entrance and offered periodically throughout the day. There is also a reconstructed Viking encampment near the archeological site, with costumed interpreters portraying Vikings and answering visitors' questions inside a reconstructed sod building similar to those built here c. 1000 AD. If you really want to know more, there are many books about the Norse discovery of the Americas, and a great insight is to be had from reading Collapse, by Jared Diamond, who has a chapter on why the Norse settlements failed in Greenland and here.
Norstead is a village which recreates a typical Norse port of trade, which may be similar to the home port that the Vikings departed from to reach L'Anse aux Meadows. Costumed interpreters portray the villagers and answer visitors' questions, as well as demonstrating skills such as tablet weaving, Viking-era blacksmithing, and naalbinding. It has a number of buildings, and it is also home to the Snorri, the reproduction Viking knarr (merchant ship) which was sailed across the Atlantic in 1997 by author & adventurer W. Hodding Carter and his crew. He recorded his adventures in two books, A Viking Voyage: In Which an Unlikely Crew of Adventurers Attempts an Epic Journey to the New World and An Illustrated Viking Voyage: Retracing Leif Eriksson's Journay in an Authentic Viking Knarr .
If you get to L'Anse aux Meadows, be sure to make the short trip to the Grenfell Historic Properties in the nearby town of St. Anthony - the history of Dr. Grenfell's work as a medical missionary amongst the inhabitants of Newfoundland is truly fascinating, as is the tour of his home there.
Gros Morne National Park is a magnificent park and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Take the Western Brook Pond fjord trip if you do nothing else. It requires a 45 minute hike/walk in and be aware that it can be cancelled for fog, even in mid-summer but the hike is worth it just to see the fjord. If you're lucky, you may take the boat trip when some intrepid hikers, with special permits, are being dropped off at the end of the fjord to hike over Gros Morne, which takes 3 to 4 days. You will never forget these views. It will remind you of looking up from the bottom of the Grand Canyon only gray rock instead of brown! There are also guided day hikes and overnight trips that offer expansive views of the fjord.
The Avalon Peninsula offers tourists a lot of options for their trip itinerary. Whether you are getting "screeched in" on George St in St. John's, visiting Cape Spear or Cape Race, driving the Irish Loop, or exploring to your Heart's Content, the Avalon Peninsula can keep any traveller quite busy for sometime!
Be sure to allow a lot of time for your visit to Newfoundland as there is so much to see and do, and distances are far.