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Tipping: It is customary to leave a tip in restaurants (10%), for hotel chambermaids, in reception for hotel staff . Taxi drivers do not normally expect a tip, but they do appreciate it, and it's acceptable to "round up" the fare. So if you're charged 4.5YTL it's usual to give the driver 5YTL. Hairdressers also get tips, similar to the UK. It's not necessary to tip a dolmus driver.
Visiting mosques: Both men and women are expected to wear clothing which comes to ankle level and to have their shoulders, arms and chests covered. Shorts, tanks tops and halters are completely inappropriate. Women must cover their hair with a scarf and men should be bareheaded. Shoes must be removed before entering the mosque, carry them with you unless you are with a guide who instructs you to leave them outside. Many of the larger mosques provide plastic sacks for you to carry your shoes in.
There are usually signs which indicate whether picture taking is allowed; pay attention to whether flash is allowed. Do not aim your camera at anyone who may be praying.
Do not enter a mosque during a prayer service, wait outside until it is finished.
While being a Muslim majority country, the expectations vary depending on the region you visit. You may behave and dress the way you do in any other Western country while being located in the Western and more progressive parts of Turkey. However, further in the East, the locals could expect more modesty, but do not feel the need to dress very conservatively unless you're at a religious temple of some sort. For example, you will notice that people in Istanbul do not limit themselves at all in what they wear but if you go further east, say, to Diyarbakır, people may get uncomfortable if your dress is too revealing. On the West Coast of Turkey (from Istanbul all the way to Antalya) feel free to wear whatever (but do not wear anything you wouldn't wear in a Western European country) but try to wear less revealing clothes as you visit the more conservative areas.
When greeting people shake the hand of the eldest person first. You may also see/ experience younger people kiss an older persons right hand and then put it to their forehead. This is a mark of respect for the older person.
Turkish people generally love tourists, and don't specifically expect anything of you except for having respect for them and their culture. It is always regarded as good manners if you don't frown too much, as that will signal boredom and distress which the locals could possibly feel guilty for. Try not to discuss politics in a public place with too many people, as the locals in Turkey often have very strong political views and can get offended over it. It's also important to add that Turkish people dearly love and respect Atatürk, the first President of Turkey and a leader regarded as the founder of modern Turkey, and can be very sensitive over that.
Any and all compliments will be much appreciated by the locals, and saying "Teşekkürler" (teshekkurler, meaning thank you) "Lütfen" (please) will get you a long way. Do not feel surprised if Turkish people invite you home, as this is a common courtesy in Turkey since Turkish people tend to be very hospitable.
Overall, don't worry too much, there isn't really anything specific expected from you and as long you have a positive attitude, the locals will welcome you with open arms.