The first people to live in the Red Sea area that is modern day Eilat likely arrived about 10,000 years ago. Early settlements from the late Neolithic Age suggest these peoples settled the lands and planted some of the first crops in the region. It was late to an important location of trade and commerce.

The area was known well before the days of King Soloman, but during the era that the king may lived Eilat was an important port with trade links throughout the Indian Ocean. This port was lately used by the Romans and then the Byzantines. The city was an important center of Christianity until it fell to Muslim rule in the 9th century. The city was liberated by Christian Crusader Knights but then once again fell under control of the Islam powers, and through this period the city was home to Christian, Jew and Muslim alike.

The city was controlled by the Ottoman Empire until being captured by the British during the First World War. It was part of the British Mandate in Palestine until March of 1949 when it became a part of the new Jewish State of Israel. The modern city of Eilat was founded in 1950, and today it is a popular resort.