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Pollenca and it's sibling beach resort town Puerto Pollenca is set between the two hills of Puig de Pollenca and El Calvari and marks the north end of the Sierra Tramuntana. It is typical of the orientation of many of the coastal and inland towns and villages on the island of Mallorca and gives an indication of the islands' turbulent history. The old part of the village or town was always further inland and sometimes (as in Pollenca's case) fortified to protect against invasion. Alcudia and Soller are other examples of this.
Mallorca, now part of Spain, was said to have been created 150 million years ago, branching off from its once-connected peninsula status. Evidence of the flora and fauna of the island supports this theory. Colonization on the island goes back all the way to 3,000 B.C. The first society to rule the island were the Carthagenians who were overcome in 123 B.C. when they overturned to Roman rule. Up until this time, the society's remained rather primitive and it was the Romans who were responsible for the building of roads and the first civil buildings. Pollenca still has a remnant of this in the 4th century stone Roman stone bridge across the Sant Jordi stream.
The tenth century saw over 300 years of Moorish ruling as the Emirate of Cordoba took control. In 1229 Christianity arrived to the island by crusaders and King Jaume 1 of Aragon's ruling, at which point churches began sprouting up all around the island.
It was not until Spain underwent a civil war, the "war of successions" that Mallorca was claimed for Spain. It is believed that when Felipe V took the Spanish throne, that the Mallorcans gave him their approval. Officially in 1719, the island was declared a province of Balaeres, thus an extension of their kingdom.
Overall, the island was attempted to be taken over, or was taken over by most of the nations surrounding the area and because of this saw several different language changes. For most of the island's history, Mallorquin ( a dialect of Catalan) has thrived except for the brief period when it was banned. The Mallorquin language persevered however and is the island's official language, along with Spanish.
At the heart of the old town is the Placa Major, headed at one end by the 13th Century church (remodelled in the 18th century and founded by the Knights Templar on the site of a Greek temple) Nostra Senora dels Angels, which is filled with colour, local produce and people on the Sunday morning markets. The tables and parasols of the square's cafes and restaurants fill the square at other times and it's a place to relax and get a measure of the local populace in the evenings when most of the resort tourists have gone home and the local children come out to play.
North from the Placa Major are the 365 steps to the El Calvario chapel, a climb that is alleged to atone for a year's sin but definitely provides spectacular views of the surrounding countryside.